From wikipedia ( translated from the French)The chechia is a hat worn by men of many nations in Islam. It is the national headgear of Tunisia.European cousin of the beret, the chechia is originally a cap-shaped shell of red vermilion in Tunisia, in eastern Libya and Benghazi in the region (where it is called "oak") or black in the rest of Libya. Until the nineteenth century, it is often surrounded by a turban. The chechia, which was flexible, is not to be confused with the fez (also called fez Stambouli or fez megidis) which is a rigid and conical top hat. It should not be confused with the chechia adopted by some French colonial troops, including the Zouaves and the sharpshooters, which is a long flexible cap.